Construction of a Scale of Contemplative Practice in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study


  • Maryann Krikorian Loyola Marymount University
  • R. T. Busse Chapman University


Holistic Education, Higher Education, Stress and Coping, Contemplative Practices, Emotional Intelligence, Mindfulness, Active Listening, Compassion, Self-Compassion


Some scholars have formed a more expansive view of knowledge that moves beyond the cognitive notion of intellect. For example, emotional intelligence theory posits that human intelligence encompasses both cognitive and emotional competencies, providing a framework for a relatively new concept known as contemplative practice. The purposes of this study were: (a) to develop a self-report measure, the Scale of Contemplative Practice in Higher Education (SCOPE), and (b) to explore issues of validity and reliability related to the SCOPE. An extensive review of the literature, reference to personal experiences, and consultation with an expert panel were used to generate scale items. The participants were 253 educator preparation graduate students. An orthogonal exploratory factor analysis resulted in a seven-factor scale that accounted for 54.48% of the variance, although four factors evidenced low reliability. The 27-item full-scale SCOPE exhibited good internal reliability (α= .857) and test-retest reliability (r = .879). Future exploration is recommended regarding content and construct validation as to whether contemplative practice is best viewed as a single- or multiple-factor construct.  

Author Biographies

Maryann Krikorian, Loyola Marymount University

Dr. Maryann Krikorian is a first-generation graduate who earned her Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and Philosophy from California State University, Long Beach and her Master of Arts in Guidance and Counseling at Loyola Marymount University (LMU). Additionally, she earned a Doctor of Philosophy in Education from Chapman University with an emphasis in Culture and Curricular Studies. Dr. Krikorian currently serves as Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Teaching and Learning within the LMU School of Education. She comes from a multi-racial family unit and strives to broaden and deepen our understanding of diverse perspectives to recognize historically marginalized voices and different forms of knowledge for a more holistic approach to education.

R. T. Busse, Chapman University

Dr. Busse achieved his Doctorate in Educational Psychology in 1996 from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, with a major in School Psychology, a minor in Cognition and Learning, and a minor in Educational Administration. He has been teaching at the university level since 1995 and has achieved tenure at Chapman University and the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. His research, writing, and presentations include the topics of direct academic assessment, school-based consultation, methods for assessing response to intervention, selective mutism, and child psychopharmacology.


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